Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/1617
Título: The estimation and improvement of the selectivity in crustacean and fish trawls
Autor: Campos, Aida
Orientador: Erzini, Karim
Palavras-chave: Pescas
Peixe
Crustáceos
Redes de arrasto
Costa Algarvia
Data de Defesa: 2003
Resumo: Scientific evidence points to the overfishing of some of the most important commercial stocks exploited in Portuguese waters (ICES sub-area IXa) by the bottom trawling fleets targeting fish and crustaceans. While temporary fishing interdiction has been implemented in specific areas off the south-west coast, in an attempt to reduce the fishing effort upon juvenile fish, there has been considerable resistance to the introduction of gear modifications, including the increase in cod end mesh sizes. The small cod end mesh sizes currently in use, particularly in crustacean trawling, largely contribute to catch discarding or misreporting, causing increasing conflicts between trawl fishermen and fishermen from other métiers competing for common resources. Recent studies have shown that discard rates can attain very high levels, up to 70% on board of both crustacean and fish trawlers off the Portuguese south coast, with a high number of low-valued species, especially small pelagics, being discarded in large amounts. A number of gear modifications were tested in crustacean and fish trawls, aiming at reducing the amount of undersized fish from the target species and allowing for the escapement of a significant fraction of non-commercial by-catch. Their usefulness is discussed in a review, six papers and an overview of the thesis. The improvement of size-selectivity, by increasing cod end mesh size and changing mesh configuration was addressed for the deep groundfish assemblage off the south coast exploited by crustacean trawlers (Papers I and II), and for the shallow and deep groundfish assemblages off the south west coast, where a number of fish trawlers usually operate (Papers III and IV). Cod end selectivity parameters for three different mesh sizes and two mesh configurations, diamond and square mesh, were estimated for a large number of target and by-catch species. In a number of cases, the data structure allowed for the analysis of between-haul variation, and selectivity models were proposed which relate the estimated parameters to the variables under test and also to external variables such as cod end catch and trawling depth, giving a first insight into the mechanisms involved in cod end size selectivity. By-catch reducing devices (BRD’s) placed in the rear part of the trawls or in the cod end, comprising different combinations of oblique separator panels in association with square mesh windows, and square mesh windows alone, were tested in crustacean fishing grounds off the south coast (Papers V and VI), with the purpose of excluding the non-commercial by-catch. The effectiveness of the different BRD’s was separately evaluated for the most captured species. Between-species differences in behaviour towards the sorting devices are discussed. Sizedependence in escapement through the square mesh windows was recorded for a number of species, and the window selectivity could then be separately estimated. The cod end selectivity experiments carried out for crustacean trawling suggested that an increase in cod end mesh size from the current 55 mm to 70 mm diamond mesh, without changing cod end design or material, would be advisable in order to reduce the amount of undersized catch. Such an increase would simultaneously allow for the exclusion of a large fraction of non-commercial by-catch. The results obtained for fish trawling provide, on the other hand, evidence of the difficulty in managing a number of target species of different shapes and sizes based only on mesh size or mesh configuration regulations. The use of BRD’s greatly contributed to the exclusion of non-commercial by-catch. While evidence of active escape behaviour through the square mesh windows was found for some by-catch species, for others the exclusion from the trawl relied on previous guidance to upper trawl areas by the separator panels used. Overall, the results suggest a significant potential for the use of by-catch reducing devices in this fishery.
Descrição: Tese de dout., Ciências e Tecnologias das Pescas, Faculdade de Ciências do Mar e do Ambiente, Univ. do Algarve, 2003
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/1617
Designação: Doutoramento em Ciências e Tecnologias das Pescas. Pescas.
Aparece nas colecções:UA01-Teses

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