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|Título:||Alloparental behavior in the highly vocal Lusitanian toadfish|
Almada, V. C.
Amorim, Maria Clara
Hormone circulating levels
|Resumo:||In many fish species in which males guard nests with their eggs, parental care directed to genetically unrelated offspring may arise for example from nest takeovers or cuckoldry. Lusitanian toadfish (Halobatrachus didactylus) has exclusive male parental care and face intensive nest competition during the breeding season that may lead to care of foster eggs. Males of this species use visual displays and sounds when defending their nests frequently resulting in expulsion of the intruder without escalated confrontation. In this study we intended to investigate the existence of alloparental care in Lusitanian toadfish, a behavior whose adaptive significance is still poorly understood. Fish were randomly assigned to three different treatments: parental males in nests with their eggs, parental males with foster eggs and parental males without eggs. Nests with eggs with no nest holder or with females were used as controls. We performed three territorial intrusions over periods of 15 days and observed the acoustic and visual behaviors of residents and intruders. Egg survival was tallied from nests' photographs in all groups. Circulating steroid levels were measured in the three test groups and in another set of non-manipulated males. There were no differences in acoustic and visual territorial defense behaviors among treatments. Egg survival was similar between males (parental and alloparental) and significantly higher than in nests with no nest-tender. Females presented intermediate egg survival. All groups presented similar levels of testosterone and alloparental males showed higher 11-ketotestosterone levels but within the range of levels observed in non-manipulated males. Cortisol levels were similar in all male groups suggesting that experiments did not increase fish stress. The present results suggest the existence of alloparental care in this species.|
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|Ramos etal2012_alloparentalcare in toadfish.pdf||455,69 kB||Adobe PDF||Ver/Abrir Acesso Restrito. Solicitar cópia ao autor!|
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