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|Título:||Cadmium and vanadate oligomers effects on methaemoglobin reductase activity from Lusitanian toadfish: in vivo and in vitro studies|
|Resumo:||Cadmium and two vanadate solutions as ‘metavanadate’ (containing ortho and metavanadate species) and ‘decavanadate’ (containing decameric species) (5 mM) were injected intraperitoneously in Halobatrachus didactylus (Lusitanian toadﬁsh), in order to evaluate the effects of cadmium and oligomeric vanadate species on methaemoglobin reductase activity from ﬁsh red blood cells. Following short-term exposure (1 and 7 days), different changes were observed on enzyme activity. After 7 days of exposure, ‘metavanadate’ increased methaemoglobin reductase activity by 67% (P,0.05), whereas, minor effects were observed on enzymatic activity upon cadmium and ‘decavanadate’ administration. However, in vitro studies indicate that decameric vanadate, in concentrations as low as 50mM, besides strongly inhibiting methaemoglobin reductase activity, promotes haemoglobin oxidation to methaemoglobin. Although decameric vanadate species showed to be unstable in the different media used in this work, the rate of decameric vanadate deoligomerization is in general slow enough, making it possible to study its effects. It is concluded that the increase in H.didactylus methaemoglobin reductase activity is more pronounced upon exposition to ‘metavanadate’ than to cadmium and decameric species. Moreover, only decameric vanadate species promoted haemoglobin oxidation, suggesting that vanadate speciation is important to evaluate in vivo and in vitro effects on methaemoglobin reductase activity.|
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