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|Título:||The evolutionary rate of citrus tristeza virus ranks among the rates of the slowest RNA viruses|
Marques, N. T.
|Resumo:||Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been studied intensively at the molecular level. However, knowledge regarding the dynamics of its evolution is practically non-existent. In the past, diverse authors have referred to CTV as a highly variable virus, implying rapid evolution. Others have, in recent times, referred to CTV as an exceptionally slowly evolving virus. In this work, we used the capsid protein (CP) gene to estimate the rate of evolution. This was obtained from a large set of heterochronous OP gene sequences using a Bayesian coalescent approach. The best-fitting evolutionary and population models pointed to an evolutionary rate of 1.58x10(-4) nt per site year(-1) (95% highest posterior density, 1.73x10(-6)-3.16x10(-4) nt per site year-1). For an unbiased comparison with other plant and animal viruses, the evolutionary rate of synonymous substitutions was considered. In a series of 88 synonymous evolutionary rates, ranging from 5.2x10(-6) to 6.2x10(-2) nt per site year(-1), CTV ranks in the 10th percentile, embedded among the slowest animal RNA viruses. At the time of citrus dissemination to Europe and the New World, the major clades that led to the current phylogenetic groups were already defined, which may explain the absence nowadays of geographical speciation.|
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