Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/2811
Título: Estimating submarine groundwater discharge into the Ria Formosa lagoon, Portugal: Uncertainties in the lagoon-open ocean radium exchange
Autor: Scholten, J.
Rocha, C.
Wilson, J.
Pham, M.
Veiga-Pires, C.
Aníbal, J.
Data: 2012
Citação: Scholten, J.; Rocha, C.; Wilson, J.; Pham, M.; Veiga-Pires, C.; Aníbal, J. Estimating submarine groundwater discharge into the Ria Formosa lagoon, Portugal: Uncertainties in the lagoon-open ocean radium exchange, Trabalho apresentado em 4 th International Ra-Rn Workshop, In 4 th International Ra-Rn Workshop, Rhode ISland, 3-5 June, 2012.
Resumo: The Ria Formosa lagoon is the most important resource for the fishing, aquaculture and tourism industries of southern Portugal. The lagoon expands across an area of approximately 100 km²and about half of its area is intertidal, covered with muddy sand and saltmarshes. The lagoon is shallow (2 m average depth) with semidiurnal tides at amplitudes between 1.3 m and 3 m (during neap and spring tides respectively) causing a relatively rapid renewal of water through three inlets at time scales shorter than 5 days. The hinterland is characterized by intensive agriculture leading to elevated nitrate concentrations in coastal groundwaters. To quantify the amount of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and possible associated nutrient fluxes to the lagoon radium concentrations (223Ra, 224Ra, 228Ra, 226Ra) were measured during low and high spring tides in December 2009 and May 2010 using standard techniques (delayed coincidence counting, gamma spectrometry). A radium mass balance model accounting for all major sources and sinks of radium was employed to derive quantitative estimates of SGD. In order to avoid biases due to non-representative sampling, areal average radium concentrations were generated using the ArcGIS spatial analyst interpolation scheme. Radium exchange with the open ocean was the most significant parameter in the mass balance calculations. Three independent models were used to calculate this exchange flux: i) a tidal prism model using radium to calculate the return flow factor, ii) a hydrographic model providing outflow and inflow water fluxes for the Ria Formosa lagoon; and by combining these fluxes with the average concentrations measured at the inlet; iii) a model which estimates the exchange with the ocean based on the radium residence time calculated from the water exposure time in the lagoon. For each of these models we calculated SGD based on 223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra mass balances the differences being at a maximum no greater than 35 %. However, the results from the models differed up to a factor of 2 with the tidal prism model producing the highest estimate and the residence time model the lowest estimates. We will discuss possible causes for the differences in the model results.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/2811
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